Tag Archives: mpayconnect

PayPal and Discover – A game changer?

Today’s announcement that PayPal has partnered with Discover Card, another closed loop payment company – but in retail, could mark a game changing scenario in the land grab for alternative payments in retail. While Discover certainly doesn’t have the reach of Visa and Mastercard, it does provide a significant boost to PayPal’s merchant acquiring network. This is a smart move for both companies since Discover is the network that lags behind the others in terms of acceptance and issuance, and PayPal knew that it couldn’t win the game by organically acquiring its merchants.
Still, as an ex-PayPal Mobile exec and as someone who has used the PayPal payment at Home Depot, I believe the user experience is flawed. Having the consumer type in their mobile number and PIN is an experience that derives from a technology solution that stands without the need for partnerships and significant POS upgrades rather than the right consumer experience. The problem with the mobile number and PIN method is that it goes against the grain of the user behavior everyone else in the industry is promoting (card swipe, bar code off the phone, and NFC). This leaves PayPal alone in building that behavior which is very heavy lifting, and one that would require a SIGNIFICANT value proposition to the convince consumers to try – a value proposition well beyond what is provided by PayPal today. Can PayPal pull this off? PayPal has never been known to really understand their consumer base. They never had to as they could ride on the coat tails of eBay to get their first 50+ million users. Or will PayPal finally shift into the technology handshakes that are promoted by the industry? Starbucks and the airlines finally got us all used to the barcode on the phone. Will PayPal finally adopt this handshake? Or do they believe that the laser required to read the bar code is too much of a hurdle for its now Discover merchants to buy into (let alone NFC POS readers)?
While the Discover deal is a huge boost on the merchant side, it’s now time to focus on the consumer. Let’s see whether PayPal makes a drastic change to the consumer experience as well. An Apple deal would be the perfect marriage, but perhaps too uncharacteristic for Apple…

Mobile Financial Services: Uganda and back

Recently, I had the opportunity and the pleasure to work with a large NGO seeking to launch mobile financial services for poor, unbanked small holder farmers. This NGO has a big mission: to create sustainable development in post-conflict areas. In Uganda, I worked out of the Kampala office, but focused the mobile financial services work on the Northern and Western Acholi and Karamoja regions. Incidentally, for those of you familiar with the Kony’s LRA child army devastation, much of this conflict occurred in the Acholi region of Uganda.

As I worked with this NGO’s amazing team to develop their Go-to-Market strategy, I felt so fortunate to have the opportunity to meet such incredible, smart, and interesting people and to hopefully have a positive impact in their overall mission. I was also reminded how far I was from home as I saw these 4×4 trucks parked at the client’s offices.

There is nothing quite like a sign for AK47’s on four-by-four trucks to remind someone she is far away from home, where my previous work residence a few years ago was the lovely PayPal building in San Jose.

While all of my work involves mobile payments or mobile financial services, the work itself is vastly different as I work with clients like the one in Uganda seeking to build sustainable development and increase the incomes of the poor versus the large banks or technology companies in the U.S. I often think of my business as completely bifurcated, and yet, I have to believe there is a common thread in what I do.

This question has been my inspiration for my next mobile payments event in San Francisco to explore what the connections are between seemingly disparate initiatives around the world and what is occurring here in the U.S. As I prepare for this event, I will be researching the commonalities of various initiatives worldwide. At our panel discussion, we will seek the advice of experts from around the world to get their views on linkages. Come join us as we begin to uncover what links mobile payments initiatives from Post-Kony conflict Uganda to Silicon Valley on July 23 at The Commonwealth Club in San Francisco.  For more information on the upcoming event, you can find it here.

Making an Impact: One Mobile Payment, One Human Connection at a time

The Story of Jean D
My story begins 14 years ago after a 6-week overland truck tour in Sub-Saharan Africa. I had caught the adventure travel bug which subsequently brought me back to Africa many times since. On my bucket list was a trip to Rwanda to see the gorillas. It was a dream I had for quite some time. So, when I had the chance opportunity to do a one week project in Uganda for mobile money, I jumped at the opportunity to take it and then to tack on a short trip to see the gorillas in Rwanda.
When planning a trip to Rwanda, the question, “Will you visit the genocide memorial?” invariably arises. I had heard it was a profoundly moving and disturbing memorial to see. I had decided that I did not want that to be my final memory of Rwanda, so I opted out. I wanted to remember the happy moments of seeing the gorillas.
I’m writing this on my way back to Kigali for my 48 hours of travel back home. The gorillas were amazing. It was a dream that I feel fortunate to have done. It was expensive… very expensive, but well worth the money. The trekking ended up being a bit more difficult than I had expected. The mountains where the gorillas are located are a chain of 7 volcanoes called the Virungas. The tallest is 4,500 meters. Others are around 3,000 meters. The mountains, or volcanoes, are thick with bamboo vegetation which becomes alpine forest as you gain altitude. The ascent can be quite demanding at times, depending on which gorilla family you visit. The closest town is in Kinigi, about 18km from the Volcanoes/mountains.
Interestingly, as I look back on my past four days in Rwanda, I suspect the gorillas aren’t the only memory I will take home with me… which brings me to today…
This morning, I went into the lovely breakfast area to have my last breakfast at the upscale lodge near the gorilla mountains, I was greeted by the friendly 20-something Rwandan staff with big smiles and perfect white teeth. Today, Jean D was at the breakfast area helping the guests. Actually, he was just helping me as the other two guests from the lodge were on their trek tour. We had friendly chat, and I asked where he was from. He told me the town nearby. As we chatted some more, I heard him say,” After the genocide…,” in a hushed tone.
When I landed in Rwanda 4 days ago, I saw billboards all along the road in Kingali that were memorializing the 18th anniversary of the genocide that lasted from April 7 for three months during which time 1 million Rwandans were killed out of a population of 8 million. There is no one in the country above the age of 17 who was not affected by this genocide. What was I doing during that time? I was one year out of college and working in Northern Virginia. I was probably working, partying, and definitely oblivious to the atrocities that were happening half way across the world.
While I conceptually knew and had read about the genocide in preparation for the trip, I guess I hadn’t really realized that EVERYONE, including this gentleman in front of me, was affected by it. I wasn’t sure whether to broach the subject with the Rwandans I was meeting, but I thought that since he brought it up, I would ask him about it.
“Do Rwandans speak to their children about the genocide?” I asked.
He was not fluent in English. French was the major language in Rwandauntil2007 when it was decided to switch everyone to English for ease of trade and business with neighboring English-speaking countries. He misunderstood me. He said softly, “Many, many children died.”
I decided to switch the subject, “Do you live nearby?”
“Yes, in a town near the lodge.”
“Ah, is your family there?”
He got quiet and shook his head. “No, they were all killed in the genocide.”
My light chit-chat took on a sudden weightiness I had not prepared for.
“How old are you?”
He said, “I am 28.”
“So, you were only 10 when it all happened?”
“Yes. My brother was 4. He is the only other one who survived. My mother, my father, and my sister died. My brother and I fled into the mountains.”
“You fled into the mountains? How long did you stay there?”

All of a sudden, I thought about the mountains which had nothing. No shelter, no food. No humans. I also remembered that the guidebook had said that the genocide and killings threatened the gorillas in the mountains and that they escaped into the Congo at that time. I didn’t quite understand how that was since there were no humans living in the mountains. Now I realized, people were fleeing for their lives in the forest. What kind of terror would children of the ages of 4 and 10 witness to be orphaned and fleeing in a forest, on the run from killers for two months, alone?

“We lived there for 2 months. We would climb down the mountain to find food in the farms and steal avocados… whatever we could find.”
When he returned, his family was gone. He heard later about how they were killed. I will spare you those details.
I couldn’t help myself. I suddenly began to cry. What a life this man has had. And he was only 1 of 8 million people with a story. He gave me a tissue. All I could say was, “I’m so sorry. This is so sad.”
He mentioned earlier that he wanted to go to university someday and is trying to save money working at the lodge to afford the yearly tuition. He told me this as chit chat, not because he was looking for money. I was embarrassed by the opulence in which I found myself there, now recognizing what his life had been. I thought about the fact that my four days stay at the lodge would have paid for his entire college education.
Suddenly, my head was spinning. Could I find money to send to him? Western Union? PayPal? For God’s sake, I’m in the mobile money industry, I should be able to send him money easily! Then I thought about whether the money would be used properly for college. Could I send the money directly to a University? Should I start a scholarship fund? What about the other people working at the lodge? What about everyone else in Rwanda?! I would start small. Help Jean D get a college education.
So, now here I am, putting on my entrepreneurial hat. I will figure this one out. Jean D deserves a college education after the life he has been through. And so do the others. I will start out small and see how things go from there. If any of you have ideas or would like to help, I’m all ears.
Stay tuned…

May 17, 2012
After I had heard his story, I requested his email and gave him mine. I did not tell him why, but at that moment, I knew that I was going to help him in some way. As if by fate, I had received an email from Jean during my journey home to let me know that the email he had provided to me had a few letters missing and to give me the proper email address. Had he not sent me that email, none of the rest of this would have been able to transpire…
When I returned home, I began thinking through how to remit the money safely to his University. I remembered that one of the companies I advise Willstream had set up a program exactly for this type of remittance to Senegal, the home country of the CEO. I reached out to him to see if he could do this for me in Rwanda. He set to work. Within a week, he had called the University and had verified the credentials. He called Jean and verified that he had the high school diploma and ID necessary to enroll. He set up the University as a merchant and confirmed the exact amount needed for registration, 4-year education, and living expenses. He contracted with a local bank to move the funds. We are now finalizing everything and will begin to send the money soon.
When I think about the connections that occurred to make something like this happen, I am amazed. The powerful combination of human connection, the Internet, and mobile has reduced all distances and obstacles to make things happen.

Once we successfully complete this remittance, I am also seeking to expand this into a larger scholarship program for orphaned genocide survivors of Rwanda and will be speaking to a few non-profit organizations to see who can assist with choosing recipients of such a scholarship fund. More to come…

June 25, 2012

Today I received confirmation from CEO of www.willstream.com, the company that I used to remit the payments to the university, that Jean D. is officially now enrolled this semester into college!  Thank you to Toffene, CEO of Willstream for his dedication in making this a reality!!!

Where there’s a Will(stream), there’s a way!!!!

PayPal at Home Depot – How does it Work and Does it Make Money?

As an ex-PayPal Mobile exec, I was pleased to find that PayPal has finally made strides into retail with their recent announcement around their partnership with Home Depot.

Since the internal pilot had completed and the ability to pay using PayPal was open to all PayPal users, I wanted to test the system out and understand how it worked (and what the business model looked like), so I signed up for the service and went to Home Depot to try it out. (By the way, I couldn’t find anything on the site to get me to the registration area for this, so I finally had to reach out to a PayPal mobile employee to find out where I could sign up!)
Here’s what my big question was.. (and this relates to the business model)… Is PayPal in the red or in the black on these transactions? This was the constant struggle we had 5 years ago while I was at PayPal when we were first contemplating retail payments using mobile.
What does this mean?
PayPal enables people to fund their accounts in several ways. You can have balances from selling goods or receiving money from others (or now depositing from a check.) You can link your bank account. You can get PayPal credit. Or you can link your credit/debit cards to fund your PayPal account. The cost to PayPal is in order of this priority. Balances are near zero cost. ACH pulls from bank accounts are pennies. Providing PayPal credit is cheap, but funding using cards is expensive because PayPal has to pay Visa, MC, or Amex for card-not-present transactions (although they get volume discounts.)
The difficulty is this: Card present interchange fees are SIGNIFICANTLY lower than card-not-present fees. This means that if you fund an account with a card-not-present card for a card-present transaction, you lose a MINIMUM of 100 basis points. So… on to my test.
Would PayPal allow me to pay for something at Home Depot using cards? (And note that American Express cards are even more expensive than Visa or MC)
So, I unlinked my bank account. I drained my PayPal balance (note: PayPal always pulls from the least costly sources first, so it was necessary to do this.) I unlinked my Visa/MC cards, and kept only the Amex card as the funding source. Would PayPal allow me to do the transaction?
1. Went to Home Depot Self Checkout Kiosk. To see pictures, visit my PINTEREST site
2. Chose PayPal as the method to pay on the self checkout kiosk
3. When prompted by the POS, I entered my mobile number and PIN
4. “Declined” = PayPal does not let you pay using American Express
5. So, I then added a Visa/MC card
6. Went through the flow again
7. This time, it was accepted. I got a paper receipt and a text message with a link to a digital receipt from PayPal
Bottom line – PayPal is losing money on transactions that are funded by cards, but I’m assuming they are assuming that they will either make it up with users who fund with balances, ACH pulls, and credit, or they will make it up in value-added offerings that they will later launch that compliments retail payments.
For any PayPal folks reading this blog, here’s a suggestion on better user experience:
1. Make it easy for people to register for this by making the registration page easy to find
2. The checkout is confusing because on the POS, there’s a button that says “Pay with PayPal” but if you hit that button, it prompts you for the PayPal card. Users don’t know that they have to choose the PayPal option on the kiosk rather than the POS
3. Let consumers know AHEAD of time during registration that AMEX-only funded accounts won’t work
Stay tuned to see how this all pans out…

Battle of the Mobile Wallets – Who will Win?

A few days ago, Isis announced they inked deals with Visa, MC, and Amex in addition to their previous deal with Discover. This announcement could finally break the impasse in the U.S. market.

So, now we have essentially 4 major plays at stake here…

1. Mobile wallets controlled by the device makers/disrupters: Apple, Google
2. Mobile wallets controlled by the MNOs/ISIS + Sprint
3. Mobile wallets controlled by the retailers / stored value (CorFire + Incomm)
4. Mobile wallets controlled by the banks/networks

I’ll make a few assumptions here… First, I am discounting bar codes as a viable long term alternative to NFC since NFC is a much more secure technology. Second, I don’t believe that micro-SD is a commercially viable alternative for distribution of the Secure Element as the consumer experience doesn’t work. Assuming both of these points, without partnerships with the MNOs or device manufacturers, the banks/networks and the retailers will not be able to control the secure element.

So the next question is: will the device manufacturers or the MNOs be more bank-friendly?

Apple – no one knows much. Whoever is working on the wallet must be locked up in the basement somewhere.
Google – Google has said they don’t care about the transaction revenues anymore (This is not too generous since neither do the payments providers with the Durbin Act.) Everyone knows that the money will be in the ads/offers/promotions, etc. so now the question is… Will Google play ball with the banks in this area? If not, they may be out of luck.
ISIS / Sprint – After much ado and many years of tribulations, the MNOs have finally realized they will not create a new network, but will leverage the existing rails and bank infrastructure. This is a smart move. With the latest announcement regarding Amex, MC, Visa in addition to Discover, their strategy finally sounds like it’s a sound one to pull the right ecosystem together.

So, now the big question now is… who will ultimately control the secure element in the U.S.? …the device manufacturers or the mobile network operators? Given the changing power dynamics in the US market, the answer to this question is not as obvious as it once was.

One thing is for certain, however — without thinking about the perspective of your partner sitting across the table, this ecosystem is not going to come together. Those who learn this quickly, will get the critical mass of players to be successful. Those who take a hard stance in the market will likely be left in the dust.

ISIS Retrenches Efforts in Mobile Payments

On May 4, 2011, news articles indicated that the JV that was started by AT&T (NYSE:T), Verizon (NYSE:VZ), and T-Mobile will be scaling back their efforts around mobile payments with a less aggressive approach to the market. This should not be a surprise given customer behaviors and market dynamics.

ISIS (NASDAQ:ISIS)’s strategy to date has not been well-defined publicly. Many believed that the three MNOs were teaming up to create a new mobile payments rail, but their announcements with Discover and Barclays (NYSE:BCS) suggested that they would be riding the “4th” rail in the US market and teaming with Barclays for issuance. While this approach made sense for trailing Discover to try to gain some market share, the question remained how the least adopted rail by merchants would overcome adoption hurdles it has had in the past and what additional value the MNOs would bring to the table… both for the merchants and the consumers.

Given all this, today’s announcement of the “scale back” to be simply a mobile wallet that holds existing cards of the consumers is not a surprise. However, the question still remains what additional value add ISIS will bring to merchants and consumers. Meanwhile, other very disruptive partnerships are being put into place. It will not be surprising if new announcements are made in the very near future that could create a further setback for the ISIS efforts.

-Menekse Gencer
Former Director of Mobile Payments, PayPal
CEO, mPay Connect – a mobile payments consulting service

The Mobile Money Movement(TM): Catalyst to Jumpstart Emerging Markets

In the spring of 2010, I was asked to speak at Columbia’s Center for Tele-Information on the economic impact that Mobile Money will have in emerging markets. This presentation was the genesis for a whitepaper which I recently published with The Innovations Journal by the MIT Press.
To download the whitepaper
If you are interested in hearing the original presentation that was given at Columbia University, fast forward to 22:30 on this video.

Comparing Volumes of mPesa Kenya vs. PayPal Mobile in 2009 (monthly estimate)

PayPal reported that their global mobile payments volumes in 2009 was $600 million, or roughly $50 million/month.  Let’s assume most of this came from the U.S.  In contrast, Safaricom reported their monthly mPesa volumes at $300 million at September of 2009.  PayPal Mobile launched one year before mPesa Kenya, and yet the volumes are vastly different.  This chart compares relative populations, average income, and monthly volumes of mobile payments for US. PayPal Mobile (largest mobile money transfer system) vs. Kenya’s mPesa (largest mobile money transfer system.)  These results are further exaggerated if we normalize by population (let alone if we normalized by income.)  Clearly, something vastly different is transpiring in these two markets.  My belief lies in the difference of the consumer value proposition mobile payments provides in markets with no other alternatives to cash vs. sophisticated financial services markets like the U.S. whose populations have access to cards and computers.

Internet in “The Real World”: PayPal payments off-PC?

The distinction delineating online and offline payments is blurring as the world becomes more Internet-connected outside of the home or office. This mash-up of technology begins to create new opportunities for alternative online payments companies to play “in the real world.” In a recent conference in Canada, Scott Thompson, President of PayPal, spoke of the new ways people will pay in the future based on immediate consumption rather than intended future usage, citing the ability to pay directly to a journalist rather than subscribe to magazine or newspaper. From that discussion, CTV writes, “PayPal plans to have a presence on virtually anything that’s connected to the Internet – starting with smart phones and moving to Web-enabled TVs and other connected gadgets…”
As vending machines, parking meters, televisions, and mobile phones become increasingly Internet-enabled, PayPal’s 84 million consumer accounts and 8 million business accounts may be leveraged in the “real world” as a potential closed-loop payment rail. Those accounts, which have emails and passwords and some which have mobile numbers and PINs, become an interesting method to enable such payments for various Internet-connected devices. Many of these channels today leverage cash, which suggests a green-field opportunity in payments. Some of these devices are increasingly accepting cards, which begins to question how Visa (NYSE: V), MasterCard (NYSE: MA), and American Express (NYSE: AMEX) may react.

As more devices become Internet-enabled, the existing rails of off-line payments players may not be able to maintain the market dominance seen in the past. The battle of connectivity and payments rails will become an interesting one.
Menekse Gencer founded mPay Connect, a consulting service for clients seeking to launch mobile payments. Her consulting service advises banks, mobile network operators, and third parties on go-to-market-strategy, product design, and business development. Her market expertise extends from North America to emerging markets such as Bangladesh and sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to founding mPay Connect, Menekse led PayPal Mobile’s Business Development efforts in North America during which time she closed PayPal’s first mobile network operator deal to launch PayPal Send Money on Sprint.

Menekse has an MBA from Wharton and a B.A. in Macroeconomics from Harvard University and was previously featured on the cover of Fortune Small Business Magazine for her innovative startup in emerging technology. She is the founder of the Mobile Payments Series(TM) initiative which hosts panel discussions and networking events for professionals in the mobile money industry and has over 400 members in her LinkedIn Group: Mobile Payments Series – mPay Connect. She is a recognized expert in this field and has lectured on mobile money at events for Harvard Business School, Wharton MBA, and Columbia Business School. She is active in assisting organizations such as The World Economic Forum, mHealth Alliance, and IntraHealth on the intersection of Mobile Finance with industries such as Agriculture, mHealth, and Off-Grid Energy. She is a frequent guest speaker at mobile money conferences in Africa, South Asia, and The Middle East. Menekse is a board advisor to several startups in this space and has advised angel investors, venture capitalists, and hedge funds on the mobile money industry. She has 17 years of experience as a consultant and industry leader in high tech, mobile, and financial services.

To learn more about her consulting services, contact her at: mgencer@mpayconnect.com.

Mobile Money: The Catalyst to Jumpstart Emerging Markets

Recently, I had the opportunity to speak at Columbia Business School’s Institute for Tele-Information (CITI) on the topic “Mobile Money: The Catalyst to Jumpstart Emerging Markets.” In preparation for this topic, I posed the question “How do you think mobile money will impact the economies of emerging markets?” to the LinkedIn Group: Mobile Payments Series – mPay Connect where industry experts and economists were able to weigh in on their thoughts… a special “thank you” to those who contributed to this thinking and an invitation to others to be part of helping to drive this market forward by contributing their thoughts to this group.

As a consultant to businesses around the world, seeking to launch mobile money systems and as a former macro-economics major from Harvard, I wanted to bridge the economic theory with the reality of what is happening at the ground level in the emerging markets I have visited. My conclusion: Mobile Money will be a catalyst to jumpstart these markets because it draws on the forces inherent to mobile money itself, namely:

1. it is a new industry that is bringing investment/innovation into these emerging markets;

2. it is both a foundational infrastructure itself to enable other new industries to receive payments as well as a service that requires additional building blocks to work. These building blocks, in turn, support new industries (such as identity management for marketing or credit);

3. it leverages another infrastructure, namely mobile, which is the most ubiquitous data transmission device in the history of mankind (and penetrates to people far out of reach of banks);

4. it addresses taking cash in the informal financial sector and formalizing it into capital deposits which can spur further economic activity (such as investments); and, finally,

5. it relies on electronic transmission, which eliminates the friction and costs associated with cash (namely cost of physically moving cash from one place to the next and the lost productivity in failing to transact as needed due to this time issue.)

Iqbal Quadir, the founder of GrameenPhone in Bangladesh, states that “connectivity is productivity” whereby a study has shown that in emerging markets mobile connectivity profoundly impacts GDP (a 10% rise in mobile subscribers will raise GDP between .6% and 1.2%.) Mobile money exacerbates this phenomenon because it is the enabler of business. If mobile connectivity is the “how” to link data for commerce and business, mobile money is the “why”… so that we can earn an income. Together, the data transmissions to spur economic activity and the mobile money payments services are already unleashing a new wave of entrepreneurism in these emerging markets in an unprecedented manner with new industries leapfrogging those in developed markets (mobile money leapfrogs traditional banking similar to the way mobile leapfrogged fixed telephony and off-grid clean energy is leapfrogging grid fossil fuels.)

Of course the reality of this situation is still less optimistic than it may appear. Kenya is the mobile money success example that all other countries strive to replicate, but none have done so to that degree yet. Without the infrastructure of roads and postal services, for instance, it’s difficult for the Masai to sell/mail their wares on eBay-like global marketplaces. Similarly, regulatory constraints may limit what can be done in many markets. Successfully launching mobile money systems is no small feat… one which requires a deep level of understanding of what it means to combine and execute mobile, payments, and emerging technology operationally and in a manner that will be adopted by a new customer base. Finally, the fragmented nature of these new mobile money systems, mainly due to mobile network operators who choose to roll out closed systems, will continue to limit the usefulness of the payments systems due to lack of interoperability domestically and internationally.

Similar to the hype I witnessed in Silicon Valley in the late ‘90s during the dot com boom, so too is there a high degree of hype in this industry, this time in a much more global arena. Make no mistake, as was seen in the dot com aftermath in the early 2000’s, there will be many failures and consolidations in mobile money, but the few who do survive will drive the industry forward. It has been said that people overestimate the impact of a new industry/technology in the 5-year time horizon, but underestimate its impact over a decade. Although the short term mobile money (r)evolution will continue to face the challenges listed above, I am optimistic that, with the focus the world is seeing in the mobile money industry, over the next decade we will see the profound impacts this industry, infrastructure, and enabler will have on those markets most in need of the economic ignition.

Menekse Gencer founded mPay Connect, a consulting service for clients seeking to launch mobile payments. Her consulting service advises banks, mobile network operators, and third parties on go-to-market-strategy, product design, and business development. Her market expertise extends from North America to emerging markets such as Bangladesh and sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to founding mPay Connect, Menekse led PayPal Mobile’s Business Development efforts in North America for two years during which time she closed PayPal’s first mobile network operator deal to launch PayPal Send Money on Sprint’s mobile wallet.

Menekse has an MBA from Wharton and a BA in Economics from Harvard University and was previously featured on the cover of Fortune Small Business Magazine for her innovative startup in emerging technology. She is the founder of the Mobile Payments Series(TM) initiative which hosts panel discussions and networking events for professionals in the mobile money industry and has over 345 members in her LinkedIn Group: Mobile Payments Series – mPay Connect. She has lectured on mobile money at events for Harvard Business School, Wharton MBA, and Columbia Business School. She will be a participant at the upcoming World Economic Forum in Africa around the topic of mobile finance and economic development and is a guest speaker at mobile money conferences in Africa, South Asia, and The Middle East. She is a board advisor to several startups in this space.